Language Structure Usage & Linguistics HNDE Syllabus 1st Year 1st Semester

Higher National Diploma in English

Language Structure Usage & Linguistics HNDE Syllabus 1st Year 1st Semester

Word classes and their grammatical functions (10/ 05 hrs)

  • Open classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
  • Closed classes: determiners, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, operator-verbs, interjections, enumerators.
  • Types of activities: write examples for each word class
  • Rationale for word classes in grammar: Words which belong to one class only can be used in a particular position in a sentence. Provide examples.
  • List the differences between the two types: e.g. open class-thousands of words. Closed classes- limited number
  • Some words appear under more than one word class, e.g. ‘play’ as noun and verb, ‘that’ as determiner and conjunction
  • Types of activities: write sentences to show how the word ‘round’ appears as noun, verb, adjective, adverb, and preposition.

Elements of grammar (10 / 05 hrs)

  • Units of language:

The sentence-a set of words standing on their own as a sense unit.

Clause – a kind of mini sentence, a set of words which makes a sense but may not be concluded by a full stop. A sentence may have only one clause or 2 or more clauses.

The phrase: A shorter unit of one or more words e.g. noun phrase

  • Parts of a sentence

Subject (topic), predicate 9everything said about the topic)-give examples

  • Sentence elements
    • Subject, verb, object, complement, adverbial
    • The most common parts of the sentences
    • Object may be direct or indirect, the complement refers to the same thing as the subject,
    • Adverbial adds further information (words, phrases such as, at home, yesterday)
  • Activities: make sentences using the clause elements. Analyse their structure.

The simple sentence (10 / 05 hrs)

  • A sentence consisting of only one clause
  • Clause types: S V, S V O , S V C, S V O , S V O O , S V O A , (provide examples)
  • Activities: Indicate to which of the clause types the given sentences belong to

The simple sentence: questions, commands, exclamations, negation (10 / 05 hrs)

  • Questions-
  • Types of questions; yes-no questions, tag questions, Declarative questions, Alternative questions, wh- questions
    • Yes-no questions- operator is placed before the subject. If there is no operator, ’do’ is introduced, e.g. has the boat left? Does he like Mary?
    • Wh- questions:
    • Alternative questions-
  • Commands: Usually has no subject. It has an imperative finite verb (the base form) of the verb
  • Exclamations: sentences which have an initial phrase introduced by ‘what’ or ‘how’

e.g. What a noise they are making!

  • Negation: accomplished by inserting ‘not’, n’t ‘between the operator and the predication

Nouns & Noun phrases (10 / 05 hrs)

  • Noun classes
  • Differences between count and mass nouns, regular and irregular nouns, abstract and concrete nouns.
  • Structure of the noun phrase: head word, pre-modifiers, post modifiers
  • Word classes that can function as pre-modifiers-determiners, enumerators, adjectives, modifying nouns
  • Word classes that can function as post modifiers-mostly prepositional phrases
  • Functions of the noun phrase-subject, direct object, indirect object, complement, apposition, adverbial. (provide examples)
  • Activities: analysis of noun phrases, expanding the noun phrase using pre and post modifiers.                                                         


Introduction to language & Linguistics (10 / 05 hrs)

  • What is language?
  • What is Linguistics?

Phonetics & Phonology (30 / 15 hrs)

  • What is phonology?
  • What is phonetics?
  • Differences between phonology & phonetics.
  • Sounds of English & phonetic transcription.
  • Organs of speech.
  • Introduction to phone, phoneme & Allophone. ( Only the introduction to terminologies)

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